CHANGING NATURE OF KAURAYE YOUTH GROUP ACTIVITIES IN THE POST-INDEPENDENT KATSINA, NIGERIA (1960-2013)

Ibrahim Sani Kankara B.A, M.A, Ph.D

ABSTRACT

Negative activities among youth groups have remained a phenomenon in the developing countries of Asia, Latin America and Africa. This thesis focused on the activities of such group, the Kauraye in post independent Katsina state, Nigeria. While the activities of this group in pre- colonial and colonial periods were considered as prescriptive and contributory to the general development of the society, their activities in the post-independent period are considered as proscriptive by the state and the public. This study explored the nature and socio-demographic status of Kauraye and the factors that led to the change in the nature of their activities in post-independent Katsina. Thus, the study has adopted multi-theory approach and mixed-research method in data collection in order to explore the changing nature of Kauraye activities. The activities of Kauraye youth in Katsina from the period of Nigerian independence were not so pronounced until the return of democracy in 1999. Their activities have been identified as one of the major social problems bedeviling the state. The findings of the study indicate that activities of Kauraye in post-independent Katsina State are mostly associated with thuggery in party politics, local vigilante, participation in traditional ceremonies and public harassment of innocent citizens. The use of arms, charms, special weaponry, sale and consumption of drugs are also identified as among the major contributory factors to the prevailing picture of Kauraye. This thesis therefore examined the changing nature of their activities, contributory factors and impact of those activities. The work further examines the social characteristics of Kauraye groups located in different location of the state. The study has made some contribution to the empirical research by adopting mixed research research method. As part of its recommendations the research observed that in order to understand the nature and activities of Kauraye in post-independent Katsina, there is the need to underscore the role of differential association, conflict and structuration theories.  It also suggests the re-organisation of the social structure of the Nigerian state in order to prevent the political elites from using this youth group as a means of capital accumulation and manipulation of political parameters. The study also recommends that state and local governments in Katsina should come together to improve and address developmental needs of their people and that failure to address issues related to infrastructural development, poverty and economic matters greatly worsens societal conditions, thereby creating a resentful youth population that is vulnerable to negative activities. Improving the conditions of living of these youth in the state will help in curbing the culture of over-dependence on political elites by this army of unemployed youth.

Title: Micro finance Performance in Nigeria- A Case study of Katsina.
Name: Dr. Usman Junaidu. 
Department: Business Administration.

ABSTRACT              

Since the advent of microfinance banking in Bangladesh in the mid 1970’s, several countries have copied this financing model. The seeming popularity of this model among developing countries is predicated on poverty reduction prospect it offers. The Nigerian government cued into this popular thinking in 2005 when it inaugurated the microfinance banking scheme. This was founded to provide finance to economically active poor excluded from financing by conventional banks, provide employment, engender rural development and reduce poverty. This research empirically assesses the performance of microfinance banks in Nigeria using Katsina State as a case study. The methodology used is based on historical descriptive and analytical procedures. The sample size used was Three Hundred respondents selected from three senatorial districts of Katsina State – Nigeria. The four hypotheses formulated were analyzed using frequency and percentage presented in tabular form. An instrument- Questionnaire on Empirical Assessment of Performance of Microfinance Banks in Nigeria (QEAPMBIN) was used for data collection. The results showed that the poor performance of MFBs in Katsina State is mainly attributed to economic factors. Also, microfinance banks have not significantly contributed to poverty alleviation even though it created employment opportunities in Katsina State. It is therefore recommended among others that microfinance bank regulators should encourage interest free microfinance banking since the religious precepts of many people in study area makes them abhor interest on loans. Also, microfinance banks should formulate strategies that would lead to job creation and poverty reduction while removing all collaterals that serves as obstacle towards getting loans from the bank.

TitlePATTERNS OF HAUSA SCARIFICATION (ASKA), HAIR COSTUMES AND TATTOOS AS HISTORY.
Name: Dr. Abubakar Babajo
Department: History and Security Studies

Abstract

The thrust of this collaborative research is to document and record patterns of Hausa scarification (Aska), hair costume and tattoos as history. The documentation would be in photographs and interviews. The objective is purely history and preservation of the cultural heritage of the people of Hausaland (Central Sudan). Scarification (Aska) and by extension, hair costume and to some extent tattoos, in the pre-colonial era are history. They were identification marks that points to origin (Asali). The present generations of people in Hausaland are fast transformed by modernity, and the culture of scarification, hair styles and tattoos are becoming extinct. In the pre-modern era, scarification, hair costume and tattoos were akin to telephone book in modern parlance. They were identity, and people knew them as a map, because they read meanings. The intention here is to reconstruct and preserve these rich historical and cultural maps in form of pictures, for the sake of legacy, and knowledge.

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